Sl ice his activities were sanctioned by the sultan and he was escorted by Ottoman officials, it was impossible to simply physically prevent him from fulfilling his mission. Angiroslo Cohen, the chief rabbi of Edirne, tried his best to avert the danger by alerting his people, but that did little to change the ultimate results. De la Croix tells that he often saw Aziz Mehmet walking in the street, surrounded by a large company of apostate Jews who followed him to the synagogues where he fulfilled his mission with success.
In , Jacob Najara of Gaza, who was one of the earliest believers in Sab- batai, spent almost a year in Edirne on the way to Morocco. Thanks to his chronicle, we have great deal of information about the inner lives of the Sab- batean be ievers of the time. He was happy in his dream that he saw that he came up from the pit Sabbatai, along with the four men of Vani Efendi, came to the store of his brother, and asked him to convert to Islam immediately. He revealed what he revealed and he achieved the enlightenment.
The next day he rode on a horse. After the Purim he went to the house of Jacob Elvo, and he was invited there with six other people. Then Sharit, Morning Prayer. Next morning he went to to king, who was sitting behind the lattice. He put Turban on them and the king ordered [them to receive pensions], Sabbatai Sevi told the king he is not willing to accept the gift, since he does not want to have people to convert for money but conviction, total faith A group of rabbis came from Brussa, and discussed with Sabbatai at the presence of the sultan and Vani Efendi.
As Najara indicates, however, Sabbatai cancelled the honorary titles of the Twelve Tribes, appointed previously in Gaza, and elected new kings, who became the Donme elites in the new Sabbatean order. In other instances, Sabbatai took them to the presence of the sultan and put turbans on their heads. In yet another instance, he took four scholars from Bursa in! She even. Scholem, Sabbatai Sm, 5 with minor revisions. Examining the southeastern European Christian cases, for example, Minkov found that there was a rising trend in conversion accounts by the second half of the seventeenth century.
He also claims that conversions were the result not of economic need so much as a way for elites and their follower to enhance their status and ensure social advancement.
Between and the figure is five of fifty cases, and between and there are sixty-two of cases. In these records, only a few cases openly slate the religious origin of the converts, but given the dominant Jewish population in Haskoy and the fact that the cases under review are all related to Jews, we can surmise that many of those converts were of Jewish origin 77 In the Edirne and Rumeli Kazaskerligi court records, we observe a slight increase in the number of converts in the s onward, in line with the claims of other studies on the subject.
Based on these figures, we arrive at several conclusions. The first is that thert is no indication of a dramai ic increase in Jewish conversion during Aziz Mehfli - et s lifetime. Not only were the sultan and the grand vizier present, but Vani Efendi and the sheikhulislam accompanied the troops. Edirne was once again entrusted to the hands of the Kaimmakam Kara Mustafa Pasha. Aziz Mehmet left for Istanbul with three of his courtiers in mid-August, In Istanbul, the first th ing he asked from the Ottoman autho ities was to protect him from being insulted by the Jews, since they did everything possible to make him feel unwelcome in their city.
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Despite the opposition, he visited synagogues in Galata, Uskiidar, and Balat. Once Gal land saw him parading the streets with thirty new converts and entering a synagogue. At the time, ii was enough of a reason to have him ar- rested on the spot. It had only been a few weeks since Sabbatai s arrival in Istanbul and exactly six years after his conversion to Islam. Sevi was bound and sent to Edirne before the army returned from the war. He was imprisoned in Hie Orta Kapu Middle Gate where lie had been held to await h is trial six yeai s previously.
We know almost nothing about how he spent his prison days. W h t is more impor taut is thai the vizier still calls him a Jew and a renegade merdud. Cited in Scholem, Sabbatai Sevi, This is highly unlikely, since aDoeh.
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However they had to flee to the border of Wallachia near Poland. V vv I ' someone who dared to apostatize. Question: If Zeyd, after being ennobled by [the religion of] Islam. God forbid, apostasies murted , what needs to be done to Zeyd? Answer: Islam is offered to him. His doubts are to be asked [and answered]. If he persists with his new religion, he gets executed.
If they insisted on their decision, on v then were they subject to capital punishment. U lien he heard that some priests were coming from Jerusalem, he approached them and said that if his confession were accepted, he would step on his iinlui. Abdi Pasha, Vekayiname, b. Sabbatai Sevi, Moses Harari f?
Solomon Aailion was. He case was taken to m. Aziz Mehmet sent his petition for forgiveness from the prisons, via his brother, to the sultan.? He was put on trial in Edirne only a few days after arrival of the victorious sultan. The witnesses accused Aziz Mehmet of praying witii people who had their skull cans, hsuus. The Dead Messiah?
Many Sabbateans called the town by the biblical name Alkum. It is not known bow many people were in the convoy or how long it took them to get to Dulcigno. Ioannina had the largest Jewish population in i. From later accounts, we understand that he was not put in a diui,. The fortress was built by the Spanish infidels and was the personal pnsse:. The Venetians later took it over by a ruse. In they drltv. Mehmet Khan in turn registered it as the khas of the s. It is well-maintained and embellished with towers, ramparts, sei rate.
The castle wardens reside in a loggia in trout ol the gate and Albanian ghazis stand guard along with the garrison troops, brave and doughty warriors all— There are 20 frigates in the harbor, as the fot ? The local population, who were mostly Bektashis, IOi treated him as a si hoi. Alien, iK.
As the convoy traveled in the winter, the journey could have taken even longei A! I ie Ottoman authorit ies in his defense during the trials: he was just a rabbi! I le still e itertained the hope of returning from exile and did not want to have any additional problems with the Ottoman or Jewish authorities. Instead he was suggesting, even urging, that his believers bi try the faith o ftiqqun in their hearts for the time being. Please loved ones and friends comply! I am your humble and young slave frorr.
Joseph Philosophos was a leading rabbi in the city and one of the disciples of Nathan. In the meantime, Sarah died in , and Sevi was betrothed to the daughter of a rabbi from Sofia, but this marriage was never consummated for the girl died before she came to Sabbatai. Abdullah, the son became Yakub b.
The father sent his daughter, accompanied with his son, to Dulcigno, and the marriage took place in Donme tradition called the wife by her original name, Jochebed Yocheved? Shortly after Passover in , Sabbatai sent more letters and notes to the Jewis 1 communities in other cities.
Then he signed the letter "the anointed of the r T r? One wonders why Sabbatai had waited until then to get a copy of a prayer book. Since lie was being exiled as punishment for a crime, he must have been under scrutiny at the time, and he had to be careful about his actions. We do not know whether he received this prayer book, since he died shortly after his request.
Karillo and another convert visited him on Septembe 5, , twelve days before his death. Cardozo had a chance to meet this convert in I low long w dl vmi hold I is 1 on to me? Perhaps until you can see beneath that rock on the coast? It is true that living in exile for three years left htm morally exhausted and physically sick. One of the Donme traditions recounts that he died from a high fever that lasted more than one and a half months. He died at the age of fifty on the Day of Atonement, Septe m. According to another legend, he went into a cave and vanished or ascended to heaven.
Take me to the cave by the shore that I prepared for myself. On the third d - w rvw hmtW rnmp to the cave. Once inside, he found i he cave empty. In the document, the commander says that Meh met was deceased muteveffa and his salary was discontinued. Cardozo was in Edirne w len he heard the news. What says Your Worship to that? There have been several attempts ,o ascertain the location of the tomb, but no one has succeeded conclusively.
To him, the most likely site for the burial place is the shrine called Murat Dede Tiirbesi in Dulcigno. While Sabbatai was in exile, most of his believers began to assemble in Salonica, a city that served as the major center for Sa twentieth century. By the time he died, far from his family and friends in an obscure part of northern Albania, his complex legacy had already begun to be contested among both the small number of Muslim converts and the large number of Jewish crypto-Sabbateans. News about the death of the messiah readied the other Sabbatean communities in a few months.
Many believers, including Nathan, preferred not to talk about it for a while. This state of mind was perhaps the real beginning of the burden of silence. With the death of the redeemer, these high hopes were transformed into deep anxieties. See Leon Festinger et al. U V nanvnou. However, the reasons for Why and how they survived are much more comnii,. Still however, the emphasis of Festinger et al.
Balch et al. IW lennial Sect," Sociological Perspective 2 i9 8! In this process, the empirically testable belief 1 1 lat Sevi was the mess' u had changed into a supernatural—and thus unfalsifiable—belief th,t '' more powerful in the spiritual world. Ten years earlier, that is, when the messiah converted to Islam in the be ievers, at this point all Jewish, faced the same dilemma, and most of them preferred to return to Judaism or remai i as crypto-Sabbateans among the Jews. At the time of his death, most of the Sabbateans, who were then living primarily in Salonica, Istanbul, Edirne, and Izmir, were still Jews.
Unlike the Jewish crypto-Sabbateans, who remained isolated, individual believers within the larger Jewish fold, the Muslim crypto-Sabbateans tended, for reasons that should become obvious, to live together. Among the Muslim Sabbateans, only a few returned openly to Judaism, mostly after hey left the Ottoman Empire.
The rest chose to remain as secret Sabbatean believers among the Muslims. Different reactions to those issues were the main source of tension among them, leading to eventual schisms within the community of Donme, or maaminim.
This perception was further confirmed in , when the Ottomans confirmed the loss of large swaths of territory to Austria, Poland, Venice, and Russia in the Treaty of Carlowitz. External failures had theii repercussions within the internal body P'ddi of 1 he 1 mpire, as well. Some immediate measures were put into effect to reverse negative outcomes of the breakdown. Ahmet III r. And unlike the 6 im P ortance ofthe that he was required to seek he adl e ffiT? The cultural and social impact ofthe shifting borders has yet to be studied thoroughly. During this period, the Donmes and Jewish Sabbateans were still in close connection with one another.
Creating a timetable for the formative period of the Donme community is, admittedly, one of the most daunting tasks facing Sabbatean stu les. Generally speaking, during the formative periods of religious comm Un - ties, most members likely do not realize they are in the process of formin such a community. Such was the case with the D6mn. T herefore one of the other aims of this chapter is to discuss how and why an amalga.
I lie glad tidings, according to the same tradition, announced the birth of Osman Balia. Had the Donmes lived in another city, fortune cou id have been entirely different in later centuries. At widows were seen as s rnents. When Ay? Cardozo re ports that Ay? As a result of further debates, a small number of dissenters left Salonica for Izmir. To jews, they were heretics, and to Muslims, they were insincere -M. The p roce , C gy showed striking similarities to the history of?
To help the messiah bring about the redemption and to hasten his return the Donmes felt obliged to take on messianic responsibilities, some of which were described in the Eighteen Commandments and Credo, as discussed in the next chapter. Divorce was strictly forbidden. He valued the communal solidarity chest above everything.
When the young ones readied the age o; 18, they would kiss the hand of the leader, and be exposed to the secrets of the? What Paul was to Christianity Yakuti was to the Donmes. Daring his time, a loosely connected gi people overcame the trauma of a dead messiah and transformed tb. Through these activities, Yakub institution a lize burden of silence. Nathan of Gaza and the Lurianic Kabbala Earlier generations of scholars of Sabbateanism, including Scholem, argued th;i! For example, Elqayam claims that Sabbatean tradition was closer to the ecstatic Kabbala of the Byzantine period ratiier than to the l.
He further. S Figure 4. As in Palestine, Nathan did not spend much time with Sabbatai; therefore, he could not have had a huge impact on him. BiilbUlderesi Cemetery, Istanbul. Samuel Gandoor to come to see him. The redemption had already begun but was still far from complete. The Shekhina had risen from the dust, but was not yet fully restored. The fact is that most of these Lurianic ideas, which were found in later Donme traditions— and especially in the formulation of the Eighteen Commandments—testify to the level of Nathan's influence on the Donme theology.
After the death ol Sabbatai, Nathan preferred to remain silent and stay away from the believers for a while. Toward the end of his life he settled in Sofia, where he increasingly withdrew from public contact. Now he had to explain the paradox of the death of the messiah. Most of his ideas 1! His tomb was -in ujxvupje uu January n, looo. He was also a respected figure among the Ottoman Jews until the twentieth century. His tombstone was destroyed during World War emin ing us of the philosophy of the burden of silence once again, his tom stone read.
He was excommunicated by the ewish authorities anf expel ed fern Tunisia in and moved to Livorno in Italy. He then came to the Ottoman Empire and lived there until his death in , moving f rom one p]aM t0 an. In the meantime he was always in communication with the Donmes and Jewish Sabbateans. Wherever he went, however, he met rabbinical resistance. For example, he was expelled from Edirne in at the instigation of Samuel Primo and returned to Rodoscuk. I ieyman, a pastor to the Dutch merchants in Izmir, writes to his friend Gisbert Cuper tfiat he m et Cardozo in Cairo in ; Cardozo was about a hundred years old at the time and had two wives.
In the same year, Cardozo was stabbed to death bv bis nephew in Izmir. Did one Donme subsects favor Nathanean interpretation and the other one Cardozean interpretations? The Rekindling of Messianic Expectations T here were many more Jewish Sabbateans who contributed to the Donme life in the first generation. For example, Jacob Najara, grandson of the famous poet Israel Najara, was one who had been living among the Donme. When Sabbatai was in Gaza in , stayed with Najara, whom he appointed High Priest, although Najara was not one of the Cohens who were the people believed to be liri Iced to the holy bloodline of biblical Aaron.
Najara visited Sabbatai in f dime in and left us a very important account about the inner life of the messiah and his believers in Edirne. His grandfather's songs were chanted by 1 lie Donnies for centuries. He was a mystic preacher, Maggid, who became active in preparing the people for the second appearance of Sevi in It is reported that the number of emigrants traveling from Germany and Moravia via Turkey or Italy reached 1,, of whom approx- When Cardozo warned his disciples tliat they were not to get involved with the new- 4 comers.
Hassid arrived in Jerusalem on October 14,, but died suddenly.. Although this "failed prophecy" disheartened his followers. But Ottoman Jerusalem was not an easy place to live, due to po itical or economic hardships before the twentieth century. The -Sabbatean camp finally had Hayim Malakh and his Sabbatean group 1.
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The collapse of this mission threw the entire group into 1 7. Several of them converted to Islam while others re urned and ,omed various Jewish Sabbatean groups in Poland and Germany. JusU few vearskter, messianic fervor broke out in Izmir. Metcalfe, , 16— He was a follower of Sabbatai continued to be a leading believer in him until his death. Bec ause of his actions, his opponents claimed that he had verted to Islam and joined the Ddnmes there. Bonafoux was a disciple of Cardozo, who was active in and around the Aegean, including Candia, Chios, and Alexandria [Egypt].
Both Bonafoux and this group believed that rather than having a new messiah, it was necessary to believe in the second coming of the one who had already appeared. After , he went to Egypt and returned to Izmir in with an imaginary letter from the Lost Ten Tribes in praise of Sabbatai, who would reveal himself anew. Could this town be the same one visited by Mac Farlane in ? Carsten Niebuhr relates that the Donme community was calculating the corning f the messiah in years.
It seems it is a typographic mis t in chronological order, and though this irst, the letters in the Cuper corpus are a -TP and after ms one a re dated Zvi Institute in Jerusalem, no. K The letter is found in a manuscript, a region next to the Turgutlu Valley. He was of the opinion that the comma, nity dated from the time when they were forcibly converted to Islam during the late eleventh-century Turkish conquest.
However, Is amization of Ana- tolia happened in a much later period. There is no historical evidence that the Turks forced the Jews to convert to Islam in Anatolia m earlier periods. The existence of the Bergama community also shows once again that Sabbatean believers whether part of one of the larger, well-known groups or not, lived not only in Salonica but also in other parts of the empire.
In those days, Donme community was still in its formative stage, and their identity was in the process of negotiating among Jewish. Ottoman, and Sabbatean principles. He tells the story of how lie was visited by those spirits several times and how he ultimately defeated them. In order to protect Jews from this wicked deception, lie sent warning messages to his followers including his disciples, Daniel Israel [Bonafoux] and Elijah Cohen, who were the leaders of the Izmir Sabbateans.
To Cardozo, those lying spn m then headed to Salonica where they haunted the believers and compelled them to convert. All the Jews of Jerusalem beli v d in him, they wrote 1 about him't r the other cities in which Jews were located. This noise arrived at the ears of the emperor 0 f the Turks, who then resided in Belgrade.
The emperor sent his men to stop tkk false messiah. Those sent by the king had found the messiah sitting in a house surrounded by bright lights, and esteemed as a king.
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They arrested him and sent him to the king. This was the place where, out of fear, he accepted the Muslim religion. When he got back to Salonica, several of the notable Jews, not being able to bear this shame, themselves converted to Islam.? The sultar. But we know that Yakub was already a Muslim, so what would be the point of fort' g hin to convert to Islam at that point? But iT? They were not even allowed to enter the synagogues. O It f 1 1 1 sion, small-scale Christian conversions we :e not uncommon, especially in. Vjiumuau the Balkans throughout the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.
However, based on the above-mentione accounts, r. For instance, on. Considering their difficult economic si? The question is, how many of Jews converted and joined Donme comm nity in those years? There were already about convert families by th" time Sabbatai died.
If we claim another conversion of families i the s, then the Ddnme community must have been around f am ilies by the end of the seventeenth century. But we know that the Ddnme population was approximately families almost a century later. With this later figure, we need to include a group of Polish Sabbateans who joined the Donmes in the s. We also know that the rate ot population increase in the empire almost doubled in t he eighteenth century. Turkish and Jewish involvement in the matter might have been a factor that further strengthened their crypto-identity and accelerated the adoption of the Eighteen Commandments.
Some ol the Sabbateans who remained faithful to Judaism were forced out ol Salonica due to his pressure. In the beginning, all the Sabbateans were known as 5 1 am thankful to Rifat Abou-El-Haj, who drew my attention to this important factor in our conversations. Although divorce was strictly orbidden, Yakub ruled that the couple should be granted a di- vorce. This was quite a significant event, since the community was facing a --—- waa incacin uuiiiig me xriai. Yakub might also have been criticized for following Islamic principles too closely. A —-- passed away.
He and his followers claimed that Sabbatai s soul transmigrated into the person of Baruhia Russo, or Osman, the baby born soon after the death of the messiah. Osman was born to the family of Abdurrahman Efendi possibly l. He was draped in green from head to toe, and his face and eyes were emitting rays of light in every direction.
She woke up in amazement and narrated the dream to her husband. In the middle o! When he reached the age of six or seven, according to ar other tradition, Osman behaved like a mature man, talking easily with elderly people. Wherever he went, he brought blessings hi him. For example, he began to work in a store whe e half the merchandise was sole he first day he was at work.
Yahuda Liebes Tel Aviv. P e nods smo-kHl. Yakub even changed the dress code for Ins community. The women were to wear black garments tied by long ropes, yellow shoes, and different hairstyles. The men were to shave their heads. In following Islamic principles in public, Yakub outperformed even the messiali by deciding to go on the pi lgrimage to Mecca.
In light of pre-modern social, technological, and sanitary conditions, this was of all religious duties for Muslims the most expensive and perilous, since traveling to Mecca and Medina could have taken several months. On thewayto Mecca, the pi gr toman sultans never made the pilgrimage.
He left his brotl K. On the way to Mecca, however, 0J1 the return tri ofhis death are unclear. Yalman thinks f. Crushed beneath the camel? A month later, Mustafa Efendi returned to Salonica, where members community had already received the tragic news. Mustafa Efendi, now 11 1 ladii Mustala, brought them some earthshaking news. Yakub went up to the mountaintop alone and there for seven nights, fol lowing the example of Moses. Mustafa waited fo Yakub to come down. When he did and Mustafa saw him, there were rays of light emanating from his eyes.
The Reis, i. The consultants were busy with the social affairs of the community Women took care of other sick women, and arranged marriages and funerals. Their salaries were paid by the Community Chest Cemaat Sandigi. He paid special attention to the matter of clothing, which distinguished them trorn the other sect: A Yakubi man had to shave his head.
A Yakubi woman had to comb her hair like a Turkish women. Begging was strictly forbidden. The community was to find a job for a beggar or send him money. He did not allow the women to gel the equal share in inheritance The circumcision ceremony was to be re ported to the Reis. Funerals were to be held under his guidance The rich were to pay alms. But the charity was to be given to the needy of the community only Meanwhile, everyone was supposed to observe Islamic principles. No one was allowed to skip even a daily prayer Bet r, Religiosen Sekten der Juden , But no one had yet d m d to declare that he was the messiah who id inplete Sabbatai s mission.
Sabbatai declared his messiahship at the age of forty and the prophet Mu hammed also started his mission at that age. This was also the time when Judah Hassid and Daniel Israel Bonafoux stirred new messianic expectations in the empire. Later, Osman Baba was deified in the cyts of Iiis believers in such a way ti lat he was seen as the reflection of God of Israel who dwelled in Tiferet, wl.
Osman Baba's opponents declared him a dull-witted epileptic who had simply been used as a tool by other Donmes. Ben Zwi too claims that Osman was indeed an ignorant and an epileptic manYalman describes him as a 82 Oruy, "Donmelik Nasil gdcti? Several treatises were detai ling the theology of the new movement. This corpus, called Akademva, which contains kabalictir "v. His morally libertine behavior toward women in particular was considered by some maaminim to be a sign that he was not, after all the expected messiah. Now the same claim was being made by Osman baba. The maaminim were about to divide again.
Galante is of the opinion that lie died either or Galante, Nouveaux documents sur Sabhetai Sevi, Yalman thinks that he die That event caused a new split in the community. With this third and Rnal split, the three subsects began to ,. All these subsects assumed names in the coming centuries see Chapter 5. He left three sons and four daughters behind, and his place was taken by his son Abdurrahman Efendi. And he decided to crush them in The history of the Donmes needs to be understood against the backdrop the proliferation of the crypto-communities. How did the Donme communi ties perpetuate their enigmatic identity over these centuries.
How did they differ from other crypto-com:; m. A they perceived by outsiders? Appearing to be devout Mosl ' they cultivated underground their secret religion, their specific traditions. In vain did scholars and explorers, Jews and non-Jews, endeavor to uncover their secrets and to study their "heretical" writings. As the seventeenth century gave way to the eighteen! This formative period in some ways resembled similar times in other crypto-communities, those of early Christians, Shiites, and Marranos; but an essential dilference between the Christians and the Marranos, for example, is that Christianity grew strong enough to become a public religion after the fourth century while the Marranos never formed a full-fledged community.
After losing a l arge swath of territory to the I tabsburgs in and moving the palace from Edirne to Istanbul in , the empire entere a period of relative calm, the so-called Tulip Age , referring w the lavish and extravagant lifestyle of the Ottoman elite. Rising Russian and European interest in ties, along with the rise —.
Confl London: Routledge Press, Socio logically, they were open secret societies. To these generic names were added a names for each subgroup. The subgroups called each other with different names as well. Ousterhout Philadelphia: Univi i sity of Pennsylvania Press, , 37— Yehudidcn ve Qfuttan donme, Juif converti.
Kieffer and T. The Turkish commanders were warned the, a, rested the leaders of the revolt, and by dint of threats they were compelled to embrace the Mohammedan religion after having been forced to confess that JctiUS Christ js the Messiah, it is an admission that Mahometans always require of them before their pretended conversion. Instead, these nominal converts were forming their own secret messianic subculture. In the first half of the eighteenth century, the interest in Sabbateamsm continued among Jewish and Christian observers in Europe. For examp e, c? Avdeti, h returns to where he comes fiom, was added to the Ottoman For - dated That was - 1 - when several crypto-religious groups surfaced and to some degree were recog nized by the state.
Botli Donme and Avdeti, however, denoted that there was sc tiling different and even unacceptable about these idiosyncratic Muslims.
Followings by gamsizmeyhane
The names of the subgroups were VXUV. V, vx vxxv. He became close to the Donme leaded in Salonica and eventually converted to Islam, assuming the Turkish Ahmed. The bride, 1 iannah, was the daughter of a certain Tova, possibly Judah Levi Tova Dervish Efendi , who would become an influential Donme leader in the s. According to a contemporary account, 1 annah was from the Cohen family. Frank, an Ottoman subject, was released and expelled to the Ottoman territories, but the others were found guilty of breaking nu.
But the Jewish scheme backfired when the Frankists took the opportunity to ally themselves with the church, presenting themselves not heretics but as anti-Talmudists. Frank convinced the church that his followers would accept baptism, but they needed time to prepare for it. As a result of increasing pressure, a 1 1 Frankists had left the Commonwealth of Poland for Ottoman lands by May For example, one Ottoman document notes that more than Jewish families from Poland asked to be accepted as dhimmi and settled in Salonica in Many of them still have descendants among contemporary onmes and Jews.
With the involvement of Jewish and Christian authorities, similar to what happened in the Sabbatean movement almost a hundred years before, the Frankisi movement came t:o an end in with the conversion of Frank, and many of his followers, to Catholicism. In justifying his conversion, Franr. After the mass conversion, the Frankist believers, whose members lived mainly in Warsaw, Prague, and Offenbach, practiced a crypto Jewish life with:; he Catholic fold.
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